Do you know how the immunity fights against viruses or bacteria entering the body? If not, know here. I am sure you will like this fighting technique and planning.
There is a whole army inside our body, which wields war to defeat viruses and bacteria from outside. You will know the process of its war, or you will not be surprised. Knowhow and how interesting war our disease goes between immunity and harmful microbes
There are two types of immunity
Our immunity is usually of two types. The first Innate and the second adaptive. Innate immunity reacts within a few hours of a virus attack. It acts as a barrier that prevents any pathogen from spreading in our body. Viruses, bacteria, or other microbes are all called pathogens.
Barriers of Innate Immunity
1-Physical barrier– Physical barrier i.e. those parts of our body which work to protect us from any pathogen attack. These include our skin, eyelid hair, body hair, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, nasopharyngeal, and cilia.
2-Defense mechanism– How is the defense mechanism? Know this of our innate immunity… It protects the body cells from being damaged by releasing secretions, mucus, bile, gastric acid, saliva, tears, sweat, etc. is.
3-A-General Immune Response – Inflammatory Response (Bring all the immune cells to the area where the virus or a bacterium is active.)
B-Compliment response– In this, the pathogen is marked to kill. For this, the pathogens are perforated inside the cell members. So that the pathogen dies.
Innate immunity and its cells
Innate immunity consists of many types of cells. They play a significant role in killing any pathogen and they all work together but in different ways. These include macrophages (monocytes), mast cells, neutrophils, snowfill, basophils, natural killer cells, dendritic cells.
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A commander is prepared like a soldier
Monocytes – These cells act as a security guard and are constantly patrolling throughout our bodies. Their job is that if there is any pathogen found somewhere in the bodies then eat it and eliminate it. These cytokines release chemicals while killing pathogens to alert other cells about the virus.
Mast cells – Mast cells work to increase blood flow in our body. So that the cells that increase the immunity of our body can come to the place where the pathogen is as quickly and in greater quantity.
These five act like ‘we five’
Neutrophils– Neutrophils are mostly in the cells that reach the place where the pathogen occurs in the body. You will be surprised to know that 10 thousand crore neutrophils are formed in our body every day. They also work to eliminate the pathogen.
Snowfills– They target large parasites that affect our bodies. For example, stomach worms.
Basophils– They also acts to kill enormous parasites. In addition, histamines release chemicals. Therefore, more and more immune cells can be called.
Natural Killer Cells– These natural killer sales work to eliminate infected sales. Therefore, that infection does not spread to other cells.
Dendritic Cells– These cells act as a bridge and messenger between the Innate and adaptive immunity. These help the immune cells to recognize the pathogen.
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Now come on adaptive immunity
Adaptive immunity is also known as acquired immunity. For example, when someone has an infection for the first time, it takes time to get cured.
When the same infection occurs for the second time, it takes less time to cure. This happens because our immunity recognizes that virus and antibodies start forming immediately and kill that virus.
However, Adaptive immunity takes a lot of time to cope with any infection. Because an adaptive immunity is activated only by exposure to the pathogen. When Innate immunity is extremely common and constantly active, while activation of adaptive immunity takes time.
There are two types of cells in adaptive immunity
Two types of cells work primarily for adaptive immunity. These include B cell and T cells. Both of these cells are made by stem cells; the stem cells are in the bone marrow. Bone marrow is part of our bones.
This is how B cells works
There are millions of receptors above the B cells, which serve to identify pathogens. There are also some antibodies above the B-cells, which act to identify the pathogen by sticking to the protein on the top surface of the pathogen.
As the antibody recognizes the pathogen. Likewise, the B-cell divides the memory into a B-cell or plasma cell. These memory B-cells only identify the pathogen when it attacks in the future.
At the same instant, plasma starts making free antibodies, which start circulating throughout the body with blood so that if the virus is in any other part of the body then it can be killed by killing it.
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They call on immune cells
The main B-cell, which formed the memory B-cell and plasma, works with both of them to produce cytokines.
Cytokines are a type of chemicals that act as alerts and activate our immunity cells. In addition, the place where the virus is in the body, the immune cells work to call it.
Roll of T-cells
T-cells are primarily of three types. These include helper T-cells, cytotoxic T cells, and one regulatory T-cells. Of these, the helper activates tea cells, Cytotoxic T-cells, B-cells, and other immune cells.
A-Cytotoxic tea cells: help in the removal of pathogens. What they do is that whatever cells of our body may get infected by the virus, they end it. Therefore, other cells can be saved.
B-Regulatory T-cells: They support the body to recognize the difference between cells and pathogens. Therefore, that autoimmune disorder can be avoided. That is, your body’s anti-immune ability does not work to kill the cells of your body.
A dying cell saves other cells like this
Once an infection occurs in a cell, it releases Chemokines to protect other cells. So that other cells know that they have attacked with a pathogen.
Whose body immunity is strong, they do not harm by reaching the germs in their body, but whose immunity is weakened, they cannot withstand the attack of germs even in the slightest seasonal change.
When the immunity of the body is weak compared to the external microbes, we first see its effect in the form of a cold, flu, cough, fever, etc. Those who go through such problems, again and again, should understand that their immunity is not supporting them properly and needs to be strengthened.